Chronic kidney disease外围投注平台有哪些



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease that can eventually lead to kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people are affected by CKD. As many as two out of three cases of CKD are caused by diabetes and high blood pressure.1,2足球外围平台-足球网


Addressing CKD and other CVRM diseases足球外围平台-足球网

Science is uncovering the commonalities between cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases (CVRM) which is at the core of our approach towards holistic care for CVRM patients外围投注平台有哪些


Kidney disease is exhausting in its end stage. I go to the clinic three times a week and each dialysis appointment takes hours.

Chronic kidney disease足球外围平台-足球网

Chronic kidney disease patients struggle on a daily basis due to physical and emotional difficulties. The progressive nature of CKD alongside the knowledge that no cure exists can often be a challenging journey for both patients and loved ones.17外围投注平台有哪些

Today, progression of the disease might be slowed, but dialysis is possibly looming on the horizon. People living with chronic kidney disease gradually lose kidney function but may not know they even have the disease until later stages.18 As kidney function continues to decline, patients face an increased risk of developing other complications, including anaemia and hyperkalaemia.19-21外围投注平台有哪些

53% 足球外围平台-足球网

of stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients have anaemia in the US19

Up to 2 of 3足球外围平台-足球网

chronic kidney disease cases are caused by diabetes and high blood pressure2

35.8 million足球外围平台-足球网

healthy years of life were lost globally due to disability caused by CKD in 201723


of patients with chronic kidney disease may at some stage be affected by hyperkalaemia14





With chronic kidney disease affecting an estimated 200 million people worldwide, I am proud that AstraZeneca is taking the lead and is fully committed to building a portfolio that will establish us as a scientific leader in the cardiorenal space.

Nicolas Jose Guzman, M.D. Director, Nephrology Clinical Research



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  2. National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease: The Basics. Available from: URL:新闻/新闻room/factsheets/KidneyDiseaseBasics. [Accessed 11 March 2019].
  3. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States: National Institutes of Health. Available from: URL:资讯rmation/health-statistics/kidney-disease. [Accessed 28 August 2018].
  4. House AA, et al. Heart failure in chronic kidney disease: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. Kidney Int. 2019;95(6):1304–17.
  5. O'Mara NB. Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. Diabetes Spectrum 2008; 21(1):12–9.
  6. Kovesdy CP et al. Serum potassium and adverse outcomes across the range of kidney function: A CKD Prognosis Consortium meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2018; 39(17):1535–42.
  7. Hoppe LK, et al. Association of Abnormal Serum Potassium Levels with Arrhythmias and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2018;32(2):197–212.
  8. Fishbane S, Spinowitz B. Update on Anemia in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD: Core Curriculum 2018. Am J Kidney Dis. 2018;71(3):423–35.
  9. National Kidney Foundation. Managing Anemia: When You Have Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure. 2014. Available from URL: [Accessed 11 March 2019].
  10. National Kidney Foundation. Anemia and Chronic Kidney Disease. Available from URL:
  11. KDOQI. Clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;47(5 Suppl 3):S1-146.
  12. National Kidney Foundation. What is Hyperkalemia? 2016. Available from URL: [Accessed 11 March 2019].
  13. American Heart Association. Hyperkalaemia (High Potassium). 2017.文章.jsp#.WpiEGKinHU [Accessed 28 February 2018].
  14. National Kidney Foundation. Clinical Update on Hyperkalaemia. 2014. Available from: [Accessed 20 February 2017].
  15. American Heart Association. Life-Threatening Electrolyte Abnormalities. Circulation. 2005;112:IV-121-IV-125.
  16. Simon LV, Farrell MW. Hyperkalemia. [Updated 2019 Feb 16]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from:
  17. National Health Service. Chronic kidney disease. 2016. Available from: URL: [Accessed 11 March 2019].
  18. National Health Service. Symptoms: Chronic kidney disease; 2016 [cited 20.08.19]. Available from: URL:
  19. Stauffer ME, Fan T. Prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease in the United States. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(1):e84943.
  20. Kovesdy CP et al. Serum potassium and adverse outcomes across the range of kidney function: A CKD Prognosis Consortium meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2018; 39(17):1535–42.
  21. Bello AK et al. Complications of chronic kidney disease: Current state, knowledge gaps, and strategy for action. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2017; 7(2):122–9.
  22. AstraZeneca. 2018. Data on File. REF-47254
  23. Kyu HH, et al. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 2018;392(10159):1859–922.
  24. Mccafferty K., et al. The East and NoRth LOndon DIabetes Cohort Study (HEROIC): Rationale, Study Design and Outline Protocol. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 34, Issue Supplement_1, June 2019, gfz106.FP514,


Veeva ID: Z4-20725

Date of preparation: October 2019

Date of expiry: October 2021